The staff of AKUT environmental engineers spent four years in Berlin on the research barge “Hans Wilhelm” studying the treatment of water from the River Spree. Now Heribert Rustige presented the results at the press conference of the Flussbad Berlin e.V. association. The association had commissioned AKUT in 2017 to test biological filters for improving bathing water quality in the Spree Canal. For this purpose, the research barge was placed at the location of the planned water filter at the height of the former Staatsrat building in Berlin’s city centre. Here it was closely observed by numerous tourists and Berliners and the AKUT team had to answer many questions about bathing in the Spree. This report summarises the most important answers.
With the help of the water analyses, it was found that the water quality in the Spree Canal had already improved continuously during the investigation period. This is especially true for the decreasing suspended particle contents, which caused an increase in the visibility depth in the Spree Canal. This trend was confirmed in comparison with long-term data series of the Spree and suggests already successful water protection measures in the city. Against this background and due to the tested filter variants, the cleaning concept can probably be realised with a filter size reduced by 2/3.
Based on the measured, briefly increased microbial loads on a few days a year, it was possible to clearly distinguish the polluted phases due to combined sewer discharges from the unpolluted phases. This enables a targeted step-by-step treatment in a resource-saving concept. This envisages a biofilter, which is normally sufficient to guarantee good bathing water quality according to the EU Bathing Water Directive. As soon as the automatic level measurements in the sewer network of Berliner Wasserbetriebe signal the overflow of combined water, additionally switched-on UV lamps would ensure safe hygienisation. Alternatively, filter operation could then be automatically interrupted for one to two days. This would also safely protect the following watercourse section from microbial overloading.
The research results allow the planning and dimensioning of biofilters for river water treatment. Five different filter materials with or without vegetation were examined. The elimination rates of E. coli and other indicator organisms were determined on the basis of loading tests. The best combination was found to be the use of porous expanded clay with reed planting. The results are an important addition to the know-how available so far, also for outdoor pools with biological water treatment. Experiences and technical innovations made here can be transferred to other water bodies and locations or enable targeted further investigations. We would like to thank the sponsors Xylem (UV -reactor), Rehau (drainage system) and ARGEX Belgium (expanded clay material) for their technical support.
Contact: Heribert Rustige
In bright weather, on the first day of loosening the Covid-19 lockdown in Brandenburg, Mayor Karl Tedsen and District Director Dieter Fuchs together with Katrin Covic, head of the citizens association Aktives Neustadt, opened the newly designed outdoor swimming pool in Neustadt an der Dosse on June 3, 2021. For nine years, citizens had to wait for the renovation of the old dilapidated swimming pool. Today, a biological filter replaces the water treatment that used to be operated with chlorine chemistry.
During the fundamental renovation, a diving facility with a 1-meter board and 3-meter tower was added to the pool. This resulted in an elaborate extension and redesign of the old concrete pool. The lining of the approximately 540 square meter pool with a high-quality PVC-free foil as well as the access via a natural wooden walkway now convey a warm and natural impression. The shallow access via the non-swimmer area is based on natural shallow banks, is barrier-free and invites the little ones to splash around.
The biological water treatment system consists of a simple soil filter located away from the bathing area. The substrate provides a large surface area for microorganisms to grow. Their task here is to break down organic pollutants, which can be carried in by bathers but also by the adjacent vegetation or birds. The advantages of this natural process lie in its adaptive properties and the avoidance of chlorine-organic compounds that would otherwise be produced during chlorination. This means that the biofilm grows with its tasks: if the food supply in the biofilter increases, the biomass grows and increases the purification capacity. However, natural systems are comparatively sluggish, so a training period is required.
The focus of natural bathing water treatment is on the reduction of germs and phosphate. While undesirable bacteria are preyed by the protozoa on the biofilm, phosphorus can only be adsorptively bound to the filter material. For this purpose, the biofilter was supplemented by a regenerable phosphate filter, because the more phosphate is bound there, the clearer the water in the bathing pond remains.
With this solution, the city of Neustadt (Dosse) opted for a cautious renovation of the public swimming pool, taking into account the existing building fabric. The regional planning offices s quadrat m, freelance architects Sylvia Markau and Steffen Michaelis from Kyritz and VORLAND, landscape and open space planning Susanne Geitz from Wulkow were entrusted with this task in conjunction with the specialist planning office for ecological water treatment AKUT Umweltschutz Ingenieure Burkard und Partner, Heribert Rustige.
Contact: Heribert Rustige
The Abwasserverband Saale-Lauer, operator of the wastewater treatment plant built in the late 1970s (city of Bad Neustadt an der Saale, Lower Franconia), is optimizing the wastewater treatment plant and adapting it to the stricter environmental requirements. Priority has been also given to the stability of the cleaning performance and energy efficiency.
AKUT was commissioned in 2018 to identify expansion and optimization options for the wastewater treatment plant. Several modules were developed, of which the fluidic optimization of the denitrification basin was practically and successfully completed at the end of 2020.
Among other measures, the inlet and the circulation of the denitrification stage had to be hydraulically optimized. In the medium term, an expansion of the treatment plant is also planned, which is increasingly reaching its loading limits. Reconstructions from previous years were subjected to a weak-point analysis, which aimed at stabilizing the effluent quality and achieving a more energy-efficient operation.
The denitrification stage was found to operate below optimum cleaning performance. The cause was identified as inadequate hydraulics in the inlet area. Furthermore, sludge accumulation occurred in the basin due to unfavourable flow guidance and non-optimal agitators.
In 2020, the closure of the old distribution channel and the adaptation of the threshold structures were implemented in accordance with the hydraulic calculation carried out by AKUT, so that the entire water flow and the entire return sludge is now routed through the denitrification stage.
In order to improve the circulation behaviour of the wastewater and to avoid the previously observed sludge deposits on the basin bottom in the future, concrete elements calculated and manufactured for the application were embedded in the longitudinally divided structure and the existing corners in the basin were optimally designed.
The newly installed, slow-running propeller agitator, the thrust of which is adapted to the different recirculation and sludge return feeds as required, results in energy savings of 50% compared with the previous agitators.
Since the spread of Covid-19 worldwide it has become one of the few certainties that meeting hygienic standards is one of the most effective forms of prevention. Thus, for users of water and sanitation services, the continuity of water supply becomes more than ever a major public health issue. But the pandemic puts Water Supply and Sanitation Providers (WSSPs) at risk and challenges.
AKUT has a vast experience in international cooperation in Latin America, where it has worked on projects in cooperation with GIZ (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit) consulting for WSSPs. Recently, AKUT has opened a new office in Kampala, Uganda, where it is expanding its activity also in Africa. Therefore, AKUT decided to support the WSSPs in this challenge of the Covid-19 pandemic.
Our initiative of knowledge exchange through Webinars in response to the pandemic for WSSPs has already been carried out in Brazil, Peru and Bolivia. These webinars are part of the ongoing GIZ activities. AKUTs Latin American experiences have inspired our Kampala office. The African continent has been able to benefit from these webinars too thanks to the cooperation between GWP (German Water Partnership), AfWA (African Water Association) and BMZ (Bundesministerium für wirtschaftliche Zusammenarbeit und Entwicklung).
The webinars aim to present concrete measures and good practices in the face of the Covid-19 pandemic in a practical way. Speakers from WSSPs present their practical experience and through the final question and answer session a beneficial exchange of knowledge is achieved between all participants of the webinar. Some sessions have had simultaneous translation on two channels for the presentations of foreigners. The sessions are recorded and participants receive a draft pandemic response plan document along with the presentations made so that knowledge and lessons learned can be disseminated.
Our initiative has brought the necessary tools for WSSPs to respond effectively to the pandemic, protecting their employees and ensuring the continuity of their services. The success of these webinars is a result from close cooperation between all parties in the sector. We hope that the high level of motivation and cooperation shown will lead to a rapid response in the water and sanitation sector to the challenge of the pandemic globally.
For further information on Webinars and support in this matter contact: Romas Radtke.
In the presence of the Secretary General for the East African Community (EAC), Liberat Mfumukeko, the starting signal for an integrated water resources management programme in the Lake Victoria catchment area was given on 14 February 2020 in Kisumu, Kenya. The project, coordinated by the Lake Victoria Basin Commission (LVBC), is funded by the German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ) and the EU.
A joint venture of the companies Consulting Engineers Salzgitter (CES), AKUT Umweltschutz Ingenieure Burkard und Partner and MIBP Consulting Engineers as Project Implementation Consultant (PIC) was commissioned to implement Lot 2 of this programme. In this context, AKUT is responsible for the management of the High Priority Investment (HPI) “Kampala Nakivubo Channel”. The Kreditanstalt für Wiederaufbau (KfW) is responsible for the contract.
Expectations for the multisectoral project with a total volume of EUR 31.9 million (duration until February 2023) are high because the development of Lake Victoria, the second largest freshwater reservoir in the world, is highly alarming in terms of water quality, biodiversity and climate change impacts. Locating the project under the umbrella of the multilateral EAC supports regional cooperation in the region. By developing a “Water Framework Directive” – here following the European approach – the programme aims to reverse the recent negative trend and instead achieve “significant improvements” in water quality. More than 45 million people will benefit from this. To this end, new regulatory standards for discharge parameters are to be developed. In four “High Priority Investment Projects” in Kisumu (Kenya), Kampala (Uganda), Mwanza (Tanzania) and Kigali (Rwanda) concrete measures are planned which promise a considerable reduction of inflowing COD, nutrient and pollutant loads into the lake. One goal is also to develop new site-specific solutions/ technologies on a model basis, which can be implemented in the medium term at other locations in the Lake Victoria catchment area.
AKUT will focus on planning and implementing measures around the Nakivubo Channel, the largest discharger from the Kampala metropolitan region into the Inner Murchison Bay of Lake Victoria. In this context, a feasibility study for a constructed wetland for the treatment of 45,000 m³/day (both sewer water and sewage treatment plant effluent) will be examined and updated. Other variants and process combinations are also being examined in order to implement selected solutions in the next step.
In February 2020 AKUT opened a new branch office in Kampala, Uganda. Since 2005, AKUT has been continuously present with various projects in East and South Africa. With the office in Kampala, AKUT now has its first independent presence on the African continent. This is in connection with an expansion of the activities in the East African region. Our many years of experience in advising water and wastewater utilities are also in increasing demand in East Africa.
The expertise of AKUT lies in the development of locally adapted technological concepts (constructed wetlands, retention soil filters, small wastewater treatment plants, clarification ponds, SBR systems, novel sanitation systems ECOSAN, water loss reduction, measures for surface water remediation, renaturation, biogas plants, renewable energies, agricultural irrigation, multisectoral Nexus programmes) as well as in institutional consulting (development cooperation, SDG achievement, consulting on water tariff systems, capacity building, support in organisational development, social environment management, etc.). AKUT acts in a network with international and local partners.
At this year’s AfWA ICE 2020 (African Water Association International Congress and Exhibition) from 24th to 27th February in Kampala, AKUT can be found on the joint stand of the German Water Partnership (GWP) in Hall 1, B7-B8 & C14-C15. We are looking forward to your visit.
Contact: Romas Radtke
Press release: Programme-Launch.pdf
Development of a wastewater switch for the energy-efficient selective partial flow treatment of highly concentrated wastewater (ESTA) at municipal wastewater treatment plants
The research association ESTA is a merger of AKUT Umweltschutz Ingenieure Burkard und Partner, the Technical University of Berlin, FG Siedlungswasserwirtschaft and LAR Process Analysers AG. The aim was the development of an intelligent wastewater switch in the inflow of municipal sewage treatment plants for the separation of highly charged inflows and energy recovery by means of anaerobic treatment. The joint project “ESTA (FKZ 02WQ1382A-C)” was funded by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) within the framework of the SME-innovativ funding initiative.
As a result, peak inflow concentrations could be identified and evaluated with a time resolution of 6 minutes with regard to height and frequency in order to activate the wastewater diverter.
A successful operation of the wastewater switch and the anaerobic test reactor was possible despite the low peak concentrations and the low number of shock loads on the investigated wastewater treatment plant in combination with excess sludge. The simulation of the wastewater treatment plant showed that, despite the removal of the highly charged wastewater fraction and despite changes in the C:N ratio, the statutory monitoring values can be complied with under the underlying conditions (in particular the low ammonium inflow values). A maximum degree of electrical self-sufficiency of 75 % could be achieved.
A central component of the project was the construction and operation of a test plant at the Baruth (Brandenburg) sewage treatment plant, which was planned and installed in coordination with the project partners TU Berlin and AKUT. The project partner LAR was mainly responsible for the development of an adapted online analysis technology. Project start was 01.10.2016, project end was 31.03.2019.
With the help of the TOC-Online monitor a mechanism was controlled, which feeds inlet water of the sewage treatment plant to an anaerobic reactor from an adjustable threshold concentration. Both the analysed feed concentrations, the volume flows and loads fed into the reactor and the biogas produced in the reactor were evaluated.
Due to the implementation of the TOC online monitor on a trailer, the measuring equipment is now also available for mobile use. Measurement campaigns at other sewage treatment plants and at two industrial sites prove the operational capability. The basic load could be clearly determined and the concentration peaks could be evaluated with regard to height and frequency. It was possible to define threshold values in concentration and volume of an impact load which makes the investigation of a general conversion of the process with separate anaerobic sludge treatment useful.
“Although the Baruth wastewater treatment plant under investigation with the evaluated impact loads is below the threshold values determined and a further investigation does not appear to be appropriate here, the results of the other sites investigated certainly show potential”, explains project coordinator Dipl. Ing. Thilo Burkard (AKUT).
The participating project partners are accordingly optimistic that the new concept can be applied to new construction and conversion of wastewater treatment plants. A measurement campaign with the mobile measuring device is therefore planned for other wastewater treatment plants.
Further information: Thilo Burkard
Thousands of canals run through the cities in China. In the shallow estuaries of the major rivers, they have traditionally served as traffic routes navigable by barges. With rapid and extremely dense development, the drainage of water became increasingly important. However, this was accompanied by ever-increasing pollution. Hydraulically overloaded sewers and high material loads in rainwater runoff today lead to excessive pollution of surface waters. This has a bad effect on their oxygen balance, which leads to serious odour nuisance, especially in the warm season.
Since the government declared the remediation of these waters to be a central task for all municipalities, many technologies have been tested. In most cases, however, success has not been achieved. Obviously, the problem could not be solved by internal measures in the waters alone. In two cases, retention soil filters were now used, which are suitable for the short-term absorption of high hydraulic loads from the combined sewer and stormwater system and thus for treatment before overflowing into the sewer.
Within the framework of the BMBF-funded KEYS joint project entitled “Pioneering technologies for the sustainable management of urban watersheds as a key factor for the successful implementation of the “sponge city” concept”, the effect of these systems is to be demonstrated and investigated in parallel. Retention soil filters were developed in Germany and represent the key technology in this country for both centralised and decentralised treatment of rainwater and combined sewer overflows.
The engineers of AKUT, who have been working in China as consultants for 10 years, are aware that German technology cannot always be transferred one to one abroad. In particular, the data basis for optimal dimensioning is often missing there. In cooperation with the project partners, the prerequisites are now being created. During our visit in December 2019, the sampling locations for the planned measurement campaigns in 2020 were examined and operational data were obtained. The installation of online probes and rain recorders was prepared.
The two demonstration sites, each with 3 000 m² retention filter area, are located in Suzhou, Jiangsu Province. While the first retention soil filter at the Zhujing Channel has been in operation since 2018, the second filter at the Hongshuanglou Channel was not completed until winter 2019.
In contrast to the more water-rich regions, these soil filters will also be used in arid climates such as Beijing. A multifunctional use of the soil filters is being tested for this purpose. This means that in dry weather, the available filter area will be used for direct treatment of surface water. This protects the plant filters from drying out and simultaneously leads to an increased cleaning effect.
The joint project is led by the Institute for Sanitary Engineering of the Leibniz University of Hannover (ISAH) and funded by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research for 3 years within the framework of the funding measure “CLIENT II – International Partnerships for Sustainable Innovations”.
Photo: Till Ermisch (AKUT) interviews Ying ZHANG from Suzhou DeHua Eco Technology Ltd. about the discharge points at the restored Hongshuanglou Channel.
In the European joint project AquaNES, various combinations of nature based and technical systems were investigated for their suitability for wastewater treatment from 2016 to 2019. The results were described in a handout for planners and operators describing such and comparable systems. The recommendations show the potentials and reasonable applications of such combinations.
The first part of the document deals with soil filters as part of combined systems and describes possible combinations with technical pre- and post-treatment. The different possible applications of constructed wetlands as primary, secondary or tertiary treatment as well as dual use for combined sewer overflows and as a tertiary treatment stage are highlighted. Important design parameters, in particular the German code of practice DWA A-262 (2017) for the dimensioning, construction and operation of constructed wetlands for municipal wastewater treatment are summarized here and combined with the results from the demonstration sites and the experience of the authors.
In the second part, the five AquaNES sites in Greece, Germany, and Great Britain, their different applications, design and operation data, and monitoring results are presented. The two Greek sites, the Antiparos and Thirasia WWTPs, are both located on tourist-oriented islands in the Aegean Sea. The solution at Antiparos focused on creating a robust, nature-based system that could handle fluctuating hydraulic and organic loads and meet the Greek standard of water reuse for irrigation. At Thirasia, a soil filter was integrated into a number of different engineering processes. Here, photocatalysis via TiO2 was also experimented with and downstream membrane filtration was tested. In Germany, an innovative retention soil filter was constructed in Rheinbach (Erftverband) for the combined use as a fourth treatment stage and for treating combined sewer overflows. At the Schönerlinde wastewater treatment plant, the combination consisted of an ozone plant and a downstream soil filter. Here, the retention of organic micropollutants such as pharmaceutical residues and metabolites in the effluent of the wastewater treatment plant was also demonstrated. Finally, the effectiveness of soil filters with reactive filter material made from blast furnace slag was investigated in long-term operation at the Packington site (UK).
Further information: Heribert Rustige
Mankind is facing “unprecedented suffering”, according to scientists from all over the world, if it does not seriously fight against global warming. 11,000 scientists warn against a “Continue like before”. Scientists warn that three quarters of the 184 pledges submitted to save greenhouse gases are not ambitious enough. Measured against the goal of reducing emissions by at least 40 percent by 2030, only the 28 EU states and seven other countries are on the right track (quote: ARD, Tagesschau 5.11.2019).
Already on 20 September the AKUT partners joined the call of commercial enterprises with Entrepreneurs For Future. It demands an ambitious climate protection law from the Federal Government of Germany.
However the federal government has passed a probably ineffective climate law, which will not reach the goals. We share the protest of the students of Fridays For Future.
Few days before the world’s governments meet in Madrid for the World Climate Conference, we need to reaffirm our commitment to effective climate legislation so that there are no more excuses for policy makers not to act effectively.
The Federal Government justifies its hesitant measures with the fact that it cannot impose consistent climate protection on people. However, climate protection and social policy must not be played off against each other.
For the first time, climate activists, environmental, development, social and welfare organisations are joining forces. We show: Climate protection and social justice belong together indivisibly. People in the Global South and future generations must have a climate-friendly future! A social-ecological turn is a huge chance for a fairer society – here and worldwide!
For more than 30 years AKUT has been working on technical solutions for environmental protection. We can no longer solve the global problem without a strong climate protection program also of the German government and a change of awareness among each individual.
Go out with us and with millions of people this Friday 29 November 2019 to the streets and demand effective climate protection now and for all.
From 16 to 20 June 2019, the International Water Association IWA hosted its “12th International Conference on Water Reclamation and Reuse” in Berlin: over 400 experts from more than 40 countries, more than 200 lectures, more than 120 posters, exhibitions, workshops and technical tours on the complex of “Overcoming Water Stress through Water Collection and Reuse”. In times of advancing climate change, water management is becoming increasingly important, as we experience in our daily work.
Part of the program was a tour of the former sewage farms in Berlin Hobrechtsfelde called “Hobrechtsfelder Rieselfelder”. AKUT has organized that tour.
In the information centre “Gut Hobrechtsfelde”, the former warehouse, there is a beautifully prepared exhibition on the history of Berlin’s wastewater treatment, in particular the sewage farms. The model of the agricultural use of the sewage farms around 1920 shown there is designed precisely. The Hobrechtsfelder Rieselfelder were taken out of operation after the commissioning of the sewage treatment plant north (today: WWTP Schönerlinde) in 1985. Both the drainage pipes, which continued to drain the area, and the heavy metals and phosphates, which had accumulated in the soil over the decades, remained in the soil. The reirrigation of the sewage farms was planned and implemented in 2004 by the AKUT / P2M / Spiekermann GmbH working group. A part of the existing drainage ditches including the drainage pipes were sealed, whereby a long retention time was aimed at. Re-irrigation of areas that had fallen dry became possible. This is done with already purified wastewater from WWTP Schönerlinde, which is further purified and hygienised at the request of the Lower Water Authority within the Hobrechtsfelder Rieselfelder. The treatment is carried out without electrical energy demand and with the lowest operating costs, as no operating resources are used. A system consisting of different zones, such as deep water zone, shallow water zone, overgrown zones and ground passages, has been created for the more extensive near-natural wastewater treatment within this so-called cleaning biotope. Since only limited data were available for the effect of the individual components, AKUT had planned pilot filtration plants / test basins for practical evaluation of the possible variants. Within the framework of a research project, not only nutrient degradation rates and hygienization were investigated, but also the removal of pharmaceutical residues and of other micropollutants. After completion of the test operation, the pilot plant has been adjusted for continuous operation. A good ten years after the re-irrigation had started, not only a large number of birds but also beavers have settled in the area. As planned, the sewage farms and the surrounding biotope are used as a silvopasture system where livestock and horses are moving independently with the side effect of low cost landscape conservation.
The conference participants from all over the world were impressed by the near-natural technology of the 19th century with sewage farms for the treatment and agricultural use of wastewater and nutrients. But even in the 21st century, when regional water scarcity is expected, there is great interest in near-natural solutions to strengthen the water balance through water recycling. At the same time, carbon sequestration in wetlands around the world represents an important contribution to climate protection.
We would like to take this opportunity to thank
- DECHEMA and Berliner Wasserbetriebe BWB for support in the organisational handling of the tour;
- the Pankow forestry office and
- the horse farm “Pferdekultur Gut Hobrechtsfelde” for opening the exhibition and the guided tour.